sports injuries

Simple Methods to Prevent Overuse Injuries in Sports

While regular exercise and playing sports are great for physical and mental health, athletes must remember to protect themselves from overuse injuries. Repetitive actions like swimming, throwing, running, and cycling can lead to damaged ligaments, muscles, tendons, and bones if the proper steps aren’t taken to prevent such issues. 

Poor form, failing to warm up or cool down, and not taking enough time to recover are all common causes of overuse injuries. Thankfully, Jack Miletic of Delray Beach says that athletes can follow some simple methods to reduce their chances of suffering from even minor injuries and painful setbacks. 

IT Band Syndrome

The ITB or iliotibial band is a line of connective tissue running from just below the knee on the outside of the leg up to the hip.

According to the experts, when the load placed on this band exceeds its strength, it contracts, pulling on the side of the knee. 

Those with IT Band Syndrome, often cyclists or runners, tend to experience pain on the outer side of the knee that worsens during repetitive movements. 

Athletes can prevent this injury by working to strengthen their core and hips, simultaneously maintaining and improving flexibility in the hamstrings, piriformis, and hip flexor.

preserve flexibility on the foot

Plantar Fasciitis

Tightness in the calves causes plantar fasciitis, like shin splints. However, it can also come from limited big toe mobility, weakness in an ankle, knee, or hip, and wearing improperly sized footwear. 

The plantar fascia connects the toes to the heel bone while supporting the foot’s arch. The professionals at Johns Hopkins Medicine explain that overexhertion of this band of tissue often leads to heel pain and inflammation.

Preserving flexibility in the foot and big toes is key to preventing plantar fasciitis, though maintaining correct form and properly fitting shoes are equally important.

Shoulder Impingement

Shoulder impingement is a common overuse injury (especially in active 30- to 40-year-olds) in the muscles and tendons surrounding the shoulder joint, known as the rotator cuff. 

Jack Miletic explains that repetitive overhead movements while the shoulder joint is rotated forward cause shoulder impingement, resulting in pain when lifting something overhead. 

To prevent the injury, athletes should strengthen the scapular, keeping their shoulders in the proper position while doing so. Maintaining flexibility and a full range of motion is also imperative, and proper stretching and warm-up routines are also vital. 

Runner’s Knee

When muscle tightness (particularly in the hamstring, ITB muscles, and hip flexors) occurs, the kneecap is often pulled in the wrong way, rubbing on the bone behind it. This injury is known as runner’s knee, which brings dull pain in the front of the knee, sometimes accompanied by clicking or weakness.

In order to prevent the development of runner’s knee, athletes should always warm up correctly and stretch well before and after exercising. Strengthening the quadricep muscles also helps the kneecap maintain proper alignment. 

The Bottom Line on Overuse Injuries

Many types of overuse injuries exist, some often causing high levels of pain and hindering performance.

Thankfully, athletes can actually prevent them quite easily by strengthening the relevant muscles, gradually increasing exercise intensity, listening to their bodies, allowing adequate time to recover, and always following beneficial warm-up and cooldown routines.

Jack Miletic

Daily Exercises for Managing Arthritis Pain

As we age, arthritis pain can develop to an excruciating level, and movement in general tends to become increasingly difficult and limited. While many patients consider exercising with arthritis to be difficult, it is actually one of the best ways to relieve the aches and pains caused by the condition.

With benefits such as improving joint function, strengthening muscles, boosting mood, relieving pain, and an overall better quality of life, Jack Miletic explains that the following six exercises are proven to help those with arthritic pain, regardless of severity.

Water-Based Exercises

According to the National Institute for Communicable Diseases, patients who participate in hydrotherapy (i.e., warm water exercise) show improved health gains in comparison to those partaking in other activities. Specifically, it’s reported to relieve pain and tenderness within the joints.

While not every arthritis patient has access to a swimming pool or fitness club, participating in water aerobics and swimming whenever possible can greatly reduce discomfort and improve mobility in the afflicted joints.

Tai Chi

Unlike other martial arts, tai chi is a very slow, gentle activity. This ancient Chinese practice is often dubbed “moving meditation” as it focuses on the body and mind, improving overall well-being.

Patients with rheumatoid arthritis should consider performing tai chi, as it enhances muscular function, reduces stiffness, and decreases pain.

On top of that, studies (particularly Psychosocial benefits of tai chi in adults with rheumatoid arthritis) have shown that the practice boosts self-esteem, motivation, and self-efficacy for these individuals.


Walking might seem too basic, but it’s one of the best exercises for people with arthritis. It releases the joints, relieves discomfort, and raises the heart rate.

With the increased popularity of health and fitness, many researchers have studied the positive effects of walking. Most have concluded that even just 30 minutes of walking each day can improve moods and general joint mobility.

For many patients with arthritis, the cold air can increase tension and soreness in their joints. However, the weather shouldn’t stop them from walking. Doctors suggest investing in a treadmill or heading to an indoor track or mall if a stroll around the local park isn’t an option.


Yoga combines breathing exercises with relaxed poses, helping those living with arthritis to reduce pain levels and stress.

A 2015 study by Johns Hopkins University reported that rheumatoid arthritis patients noticed decreased joint swelling and pain after participating in yoga sessions.

Jack Miletic


Depending on the type of arthritis they have, patients are more at risk of developing cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, elevating heart rate is crucial in minimize the chances of developing cardiovascular complications.

Cycling is a fantastic way to achieve that, as it’s a low-impact workout that ensures as little weight is placed on the joints as possible.

Alongside raising the heart rate, cycling improves leg strength and reduces the morning stiffness often experienced by those with arthritis.

Strength Training

Weakened muscles are an all-too-common side effect of arthritis. Unfortunately, weaker muscles can increase joint discomfort.

Luckily, arthritic patients can strengthen their bodies with weightlifting. By getting stronger, daily tasks become easier and pains are lessened as a result.

With all that in mind, patients with athritic complications should note that they must speak to their physician before beginning a new workout program.

Jack Miletic

The Differences Between Cardiac Arrest and a Heart Attack

Heart attacks and cardiac arrests are severe medical dangers impacting the heart. However, contrary to popular belief, they are not the same. Jack Miletic reports that understanding the differences between the two is vital in order to seek effective, quick treatment. After all, that’s the only way to increase the chances of a positive result.

The Characteristics of a Cardiac Arrest

Cardiac arrest occurs when the heart abruptly stops functioning and pumping blood around the body. It’s an unexpected scenario that can happen to anyone, including those who are typically fit and healthy. To boost the likelihood of survival, it requires near-immediate medical assistance.


Various circumstances can cause this heart issue. Most notably, nervous problems in the heart, like tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. However, external forces like electrical shocks and water submersion can also lead to cardiac arrest.


Lack of pulse, immediate unconsciousness, and lack of breathing are typical signs of cardiac arrest.


If someone is having an episode of cardiac arrest, those around them should get in touch with a physician or a paramedic immediately. Provided they know what they’re doing, they should also begin CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation).

Hands-only CPR is conducted by:

  1. Kneeling beside the person and placing the heel of a hand on the breastbone in the chest’s center.
  2. Putting the palm of the other hand on top of the hand on the chest, interlocking the fingers.
  3. Ensuring shoulders are directly above the hands.
  4. Using body weight to press straight down by 2 to 2.5 inches on the patient’s chest.
  5. Releasing the compression and allowing the chest to return to the original position.
  6. Repeating compressions at a rate of 100 to 120 times per minute until the ambulance arrives.

Paramedics and other health professionals use defibrillators to deliver electricity to the heart to regain normal pulses.

Jack Miletic

The Characteristics of a Heart Attack

A heart attack occurs when blood flow to a certain portion of the heart is obstructed, causing cardiac tissue injury.


Normally, heart attacks are caused by a buildup of plaque in the arteries, which rupture, leading to clots. High cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, a family history of heart disease, and high blood pressure are the primary risk factors for heart attacks.


Unlike cardiac arrests, heart attacks cause a variety of symptoms like:

  • Chest discomfort or aches
  • Vomiting or nausea
  • Limb, back, neck, or jaw soreness

They often come with early warning signs, which aren’t necessarily immediately fatal like cardiac arrests.


Even though heart attacks aren’t instantly fatal, time is of the essence. Emergency medical help should be sought immediately to reduce the risk of cardiac damage. Treatments can include morphine, beta-blockers, statins, ACE inhibitors, clot busters, and other blood-thinning medications.

The Bottom Line

Essentially, the difference between a heart attack and cardiac arrest is that cardiac arrest is an instant loss of heart function, while a heart attack is caused by blood flow blockages or other underlying conditions. Though varying in severity, both require prompt medical attention and lifestyle changes.

Jack Miletic

Technology for Chronic Pain Management

Chronic pain can be incredibly debilitating to those who suffer from it. Anything that lessens the pain is often sought out and attempted by any patient who suffers. Unfortunately, opioids for pain have created an enormous problem in America, with over 40 people succumbing to overdoses of opioid addiction on a daily basis. Advancements in modern technology are helping to reduce the dependence on opioid medications and treat pain without the need for addictive drugs.

Over the past few decades, engineers and scientists have been developing ways to manage chronic pain with technology assisted devices. Some methods include neuromodulation, radiofrequency ablation, and positive reinforcement.

Jack Miletic of Delray Beach explains that these technologies, as well as other modalities are constantly being developed. While they do not yet replace helpful, non-addictive prescriptions and other medical treatments, technology can be a great assistant with the management of chronic pain. So, how does this technology help?


The three methods of technology-assisted pain management mentioned above are very broad categories. The way that they are applied can vary greatly based on the patient, cause of pain, and area of pain in which the patient suffers.

Neuromodulation, or nerve stimulation, can be applied to several different areas of the body. As for the devices, they are either worn on a specific area of the body, or surgically implanted. While this wearable tech does not require a prescription, there are instances when it should not be used, and is determined on a case-by-case basis.

By stimulating specific nerves, neuromodulation devices and treatments can prevent or reduce the pain signals that reach the brain.

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is similar to neuromodulation in that it directly affects a specific area of the body. Using a medical probe, doctors can use these radio frequencies to kill the cells in a small area on the body. This technology has various applications.

In the context of chronic pain, RFA can be used to remove the nerves that send pain signals to the brain. By doing so, patients will feel drastic relief from pain, with effects lasting as long as one year.

On the other hand, positive reinforcement technology does not directly affect the body but the mind. One example includes an experiment on the efficacy of sonification devices to reinforce physiotherapy.

These devices draw attention to a patient’s movements that are conducive to healing and pain management. By validating the movement, the patient is then encouraged by their own progress.

Jack Miletic of Delray Beach

Developments in Technology for Pain

While these technologies have been around since the 1960s, there have been great advancements within the last decade, which are continually being built upon.

In the field of neuromodulation, new target areas and electrical stimulation methods have been discovered in the past 10 years. As doctors continue to understand how stimulating new areas can affect different types of chronic pain, more options for chronic pain sufferers have been brought to light.

Radiofrequency ablation is being developed and utilized more than ever in chronic pain cases. Doctors and scientists are discovering new ways that the technology can be used in different methods as well. The same goes for less direct approaches such as sonification.


Patients suffering from chronic pain often have a bleak outlook on their future. However, as medical technology becomes more advanced, chronic pain will become more manageable in various ways. With each passing year, technology advancements, clinical trials, and reduced dependency on prescription medications will create a wide space for technology as it will become greatly utilized in the field, no longer as alternative treatments, or assisted modalities, but as the number one treatment for pain.

Jack Miletic

Better Ways to Deal with Pain

Chronic pain is a chronic issue in the United States according to Jack Miletic.

About 1 in 5 U.S. adults experience some form of chronic pain, defined as any pain lasting at least three months. Globally it’s the top cause of disease burden and disability. Chronic pain can be the result of everything from cancer and scar tissue, to back and muscle strain.

The numbers are staggering. Around 15 million adults say they endure debilitating joint pain due to arthritis. Another 4 million experience migraines every day.

Various forms of pain medication are commonly prescribed or sold over the counter to help people cope with chronic pain. It’s often a double-edged sword. While many medications are effective each day for pain, many, especially opioids, carry a high risk of dependency. The United States is currently experiencing an opioid epidemic.

That has led many to seek alternative, drug-free forms of treatment for their pain.

Occupational and Physical Therapy

These common approaches to pain and mobility management are among the most effective. Occupational therapists work with individuals to craft new ways to perform daily activities that do not lead to one’s usual pain.

Physical therapists rely on sets of exercises tailored to individuals to improve mobility and strength, often for those recovering from a painful event, such as broken bones or falls.


Used in pain treatment since around 100 B.C., this form of traditional Chinese medicine targets certain points on the body using needles, heat, electrical stimulation, or pressure. Modern research often backs up the claim that acupuncture may work as a pain reliever.

Studies have suggested acupuncture is particularly effective for pain related to sports injuries, osteoarthritis, and fibromyalgia. Some believe acupuncture techniques block the nerves sending pain signals or that it releases chemicals in the body that numb pain.

Comfort Therapy

A blanket technique that commonly uses techniques such as exercise, meditation, massage therapy, and companionship as collective approaches to ease pain. Art and music therapy are examples of comfort therapy. In a hospital, it may take the form of cold/hot therapy, extra pillows, and pet therapy.

Medical Marijuana

Once taboo, medical marijuana rose in popularity in the 1990s as a form of pain treatment and has become even more mainstream recently as more states legalize it. Research has consistently shown marijuana to have positive effects on nerve pain for those with HIV or multiple sclerosis.

Marijuana is often used by cancer patients to ease nausea and other forms of pain associated with chemotherapy. Medical marijuana also comes in prescription medication forms.

Jack Miletic


A form of stress-reduction therapy, yoga has the potential to help chronic pain issues such as neck and back pain and fibromyalgia, or muscle pain that’s widespread. Yoga is also considered a form of relaxation therapy that aims to reduce tension in the body.

Relaxation therapy includes breathing and focus techniques. Forms of massage are also reportedly beneficial for those experiencing rheumatoid arthritis pain.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Patients in pain speak with psychologists who work together to set goals related to altering physical and emotional responses to stress and pain.


Advances in Alzheimer’s Research and Treatments

The medical news is abuzz with allegations of falsified research, potentially throwing much of what scientists believed they knew about Alzheimer’s disease into doubt. But all is not lost, as research receives a much-needed cash injection, and new studies have been revealed.

Manipulated Photographs Jeopardizing Years of Research

Jack Miletic of Delray Beach says that it has come to light in recent weeks that photographs used in a 2006 study of proteins that are thought to be involved in the development of Alzheimer’s disease had been manipulated at the time of their publication.

While it is not clear exactly how the images were altered, reports suggest that at least 50% of the images have been digitally manipulated, which could mean falsified research. While the manipulation of scientific results is already an unacceptable practice, the images were those used in a study which has been widely distributed, held to acclaim, and used as a benchmark for further research.

While some scientists are devastated at this blow, others have sought to reassure fellow professionals and the public alike that the field of Alzheimer’s research extends far beyond apparent discoveries linked to just one protein.

Abandoning Lab Mice in Favor of Primates

While the lab mouse has for decades been used as a live animal on which to perform research, recent studies have revealed that they are no longer considered suitable for Alzheimer’s testing.

Primate DNA, life span, and even cognitive ability is much closer to that of humans. Along with the fact that mice do not naturally contract Alzheimer’s disease, all signs point to using non-human primates in further research into the disease.

Whether mice continued to be used in such or similar studies or whether primates will replace them, the very subject of animal testing remains a highly contentious issue.

Center on Aging Secure Vital Grant

A project led by the team at the University of Kentucky’s Sanders-Brown Center on Aging has secured a grant of over $20 million from the National Institute on Aging, primarily to focus on promising research concerning cells called astrocytes.

These many-faceted cells deliver oxygen and sustenance to neurons and could be enhanced to restore this neural energy where it has otherwise been decimated by Alzheimer’s disease.

Alzheimer’s remains mostly unresponsive to drug treatments, as well as being a disease whose cause is relatively difficult to pinpoint, so it remains at the forefront of the National Institute on Aging’s projects.

The welcomed funds are perfectly timed to allow researchers more time to follow what looks to be promising lines of scientific enquiry.

Jack Miletic of Delray Beach

Black Communities Encouraged to Participate in Alzheimer’s Research

Despite government figures revealing how Black Americans are around twice as likely to develop dementia, they are 35% less likely to be diagnosed, due to reluctance to enter medical trials.

African American hesitancy to participate in research stems from years of institutionalized racism in medical testing, including a 40-year project in Alabama which ended in the 1970s, during which time hundreds of black men were injected with syphilis.

Universities in Alabama are now making an active effort to encourage more African Americans into modern clinical trials for Alzheimer’s, to try and stem the tide of dementia in the community.


Ways to Keep the Spine Healthy While Aging

The spine is a vitally important part of the body that with age, can experience degeneration and weakening due to the physical demands of life.

There are various treatments for the spine that can improve one’s quality of life; treatments that focus on increasing/restoring range of motion, as well as making adaptations to the home to ensure that it is accessible and safe. Each patient is different and has different physical needs, so they should receive their own specific exercise prescription.

Are you wondering how to keep the back and spine healthy for yourself or a loved one? Jack Miletic, a spine physician at the Pain Institute in Orlando, Florida explains the different treatment options for maintaining a healthy spine while aging, below.

Increasing, Restoring and Maintaining Mobility

The first goal of any treatment program for the spine is to focus on increasing, restoring, and maintaining range of motion, flexibility, strength, endurance, coordination, and balance. This can be done by a series of core stabilization exercises performed regularly and engaging in fitness programs that follow core-strengthening principles.

Stabilization of the spine is a process that starts by focusing on strengthening smaller muscles in the lumbar and neutral spine areas. By strengthening muscles in the lumbar area, rotational movement and balancing of the spine is improved. Through neutral spine stabilization exercises, coordination, endurance, and strength are improved.

Adaptations to Improve Home Accessibility and Safety

It is not only important to rehabilitate the aging spine, but to accommodate it in all areas of one’s life such as at work and at home. Begin by educating clients on how to properly bend over and lift heavy objects. These proper lifting and bending techniques are crucial to ensuring a healthy back and spine, especially in the later years of life.

Jack Miletic

Posture, Transfers and Walking Skills

Another aspect of treating the spine properly is to educate patients and clients on preventative care, such as sitting and standing correctly, moving properly to and from different positions, and walking correctly with good posture. Teaching patients about these techniques will help to prevent falls and future damage from occurring to the spine.

Increasing Fitness

Additionally, having clients increase their level of fitness, as well as implementing fitness programs that focus on building core strength can greatly increase overall patient strength and fitness, which directly benefits spine health.

Energy Conservation, Joint Protection, and the Need for Assistive Devices

Teaching patients different techniques that help to restore and utilize the energy in their bodies, protecting joints in the back, legs and hips, and using assistive devices if necessary can avoid further wear and tear on the spine.

Improving Sensation, Joint Proprioception and Reducing Pain

By focusing on improving sensation, joint proprioception and reducing pain, patients are better able to embrace their independence and thereby increase physical activity.

Improving these aspects allows clients to conserve spine health and engage in daily life events that might otherwise be too physically demanding.


To properly care for an aging spine, patients must focus on not only performing core-strengthening exercises but also engage in frequent physical activity that engages the core muscles. Additionally, it is useful to educate patients on how to properly move their bodies, use correct posture, and sit/stand with care as to not introduce more stress to the spine.

Conserving spine health is more than just increasing strength and improving posture; it also involves understanding where one’s body is in space, where key joints are located, and how to reduce pain and inflammation when it occurs. If needed, using the correct assistive devices, and making adaptations to the home can increase your chances of having a healthy spine for many years to come.